Although the European Commission announced in December 20211 that the EU Digital COVID Certificate (DCC) would be valid for nine months without a booster shot, several EU countries – including France, Italy, Denmark and Malta – decided to shorten the validity of vaccination passes for national use to seven or three months. A number of countries have also introduced additional testing requirements that apply to vaccinated/recovered EU travellers, going against the current Council Recommendations. Transport and tourism associations – including Airlines 4 Europe, European Regional Airline Association, and others – have expressed their concern at this emerging new patchwork of
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